THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE BUDDHA IMAGE
The first images of the Buddha were created in the Kushan period (1st - 3rd centuries A.D.) when much of India was controlled by an Eastern Iranian people of Central Asian origin. In the northern part of the Kushan's domain, comprising the ancient region of Gandhara, the style utilized was based on Greco-Roman prototypes. The art produced at the southern capital of Mathura was an outgrowth of native Indian styles. The art of Mathura ultimatey had a greater influence on later sculpture.
Early Buddhist Images from Gandhara
Early Buddhist Images from Mathura
Kanishka - most powerful and renowned of Kushan sovereigns; frequently referred to as the second Asoka for his patronage of Buddhism
mudra - gestures made with one or both hands which symbolize the actions and powers of Buddhist deities.
Suggested: AAI, chpt. 9-10