Do a full morphological
analysis of each of the following words. Steps:
1. Say how many
morphemes are in the underlined word in each phrase, and rewrite the word
with hyphens between the morphemes. If the root spelling changes when
affixes are added, you can spell it either way.
2. Identify each morpheme in the word as bound or free; root, prefix
or suffix; and, if an affix, inflectional or derivational. Any affix
that is not in the tables of inflectional
affixes on my morphology page is derivational. For inflectional morphemes,
identify the category the affix marks (tense, number, etc.), and whether
or not the suffix appears in a regular or irregular form. Keep an eye
out for bound roots!
3. Remember the most crucial proof that something is a morpheme:
it must occur with the same or nearly the same pronunciation AND THE SAME
MEANING either in other words (in the case of affixes or bound roots) or
when standing alone (in the case of free roots. It is helpful, however,
to demonstrate that a free root retains its meaning when affixes other
than those in question are attached to it). To the extent possible, give
a definition for affixes; minimally, an affix may just change the lexical
category (part of speech) of the root. You should definitely note that.
For each bound morpheme, give at least two additional examples of words
that contain that affix. It's all right to use a dictionary, but be very
careful if you are dealing with an affix that takes more than one category
of root: be sure to identify which one you're seeing. For instance, English -al can
be applied to nouns to make adjectives, e.g., global, central, tropical, but
it also makes nouns out of verbs: arrival, acquittal, refusal.
Example: Several Americanisms
America: free root
-an: bound derivational suffix; e.g., 'Dominican', 'Republican', 'Asian'
-ism: bound derivational suffix; e.g., 'Communism', 'defeatism'
-s: bound inflectional suffix, regular plural; e.g., 'walls', 'things'